ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS: TOO ADVANCED TO BELIEVE THEY’RE ANCIENT
We today live in brick and mortar houses, have well managed drainage systems and advanced agricultural technologies. If you think that these facilities and the concept of smart cities are things of modern era then you are absolutely wrong. Perplexed, right? Let us know about four major advanced ancient civilizations dated Before Christ that will blow your mind with their knowledge, intelligence, planning and calibre.
Hailing in 3200 BC, people of this civilization are greatly known for their knowledge in mathematics and architecture. But the thing unknown about them is their exemplary knowledge and skill in field of medicines. As per evidences, they knew about anatomy and ailment to various diseases like malaria and also to injuries. They treated wounds by bandaging them with raw meat. They used opium as a pain killer and linen soaked in honey to stop infections. Surgeons of this era knew how to set broken bones and stitch wounds. These people were also modernised in their thinking and practised gender equality except for slaves. Women of those times enjoyed more rights and opportunities than women of present modern societies. Two prominent women Pharaohs (rulers) of ancient Egypt- Hatshepsut and Cleopatra, are well known for their beauty, intelligence and just rule.
ANCIENT IRAQ (MESOPOTAMIA)
Mesopotamia is different from other civilizations since it developed city-states. City-states were a group of cities that shared a common culture.The first civilization was called Sumer. It included cities namely Eridu, Uruk, Ur, and Lagash. They were very sound in technology. Many of the concepts we use today have their origins in this civilization.They were the first to use the wheel. The wagon was a transportation revolution for farming and trade. They developed a number system based on number 60. This is the reason we have 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. They used a 12 month calendar with a 7 day week. Astronomers studied the stars and mapped the first set of constellations. Early writers wrote the earliest known literature called the Epic of Gilgamesh, which tells the tale of the struggle between men and the Gods. They also created architectural structures such as the dome, the column and the arch. Though now only dirt and clay of their architecture remains, archeologists have unearthed many amazing artifacts that project the intelligence of this civilization.
ANCIENT INDIA (THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION)
The then Indus Valley civilization is a part of modern day India and Pakistan. The civilization comprised of two famous cities- Harappa and MohenjoDaro. Various seals have been discovered with 400-600 different impressions on them in the Indus script. Indus Script was the language of the civilization and the language is so difficult that it has not been completely deciphered till date. This makes this civilization even more mysterious. These Indus script symbols have been discovered in Mesopotamia too which show the prevalence of regular trade between these two civilizations. Archeologists have found the remains of cities to be incredibly well planned out. Historians estimate that each major city could support as many as 80,000 people, so Ancient India was by far the largest early civilization. The buildings were made from mud-bricks that had been fired in a kiln to make it harder. City planners started by digging water wells and water drainage systems with main roads and small roads laid out in a square grid. Finally homes were built along the roads, sometimes with multiple stories. This kind of city planning is still followed in modern era. This civilization practiced farming as their major occupation.
Some historians believe they have discovered a massive granary nearly 200 feet long to store and dry grains. One of the major architecture of this civilization is the Great Bath. Basically it is a public pool that is over 40 feet long, 20 feet wide and nearly 10 feet deep. This tells us that there maybe palaces or temples, but still, did the civilization have rulers or not is a mystery.
This civilization is mainly known for its fantastic discoveries- printing, gunpowder, paper making and compass. All these were first discovered and used in ancient China. The first observations on solar eclipses and comets were recorded in ancient China. They brought the concept of time by inventing Shadow clocks.